Dry Bean Breeding Project

Recent Publications


Dietary Dry Bean Effects on Hepatic Expression of Stress and Toxicity Related Genes in Rats
     Erica L Daniell, Elizabeth Ryan, Mark Brick, Henry J Thompson

Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) consumption is associated with reduced rich for a number of chronic diseases. In westernized societies, dry bean consumption is particularly low (~2-4kg/capita/year) and little information is available about the safety of increasing dietary intake in humans to achieve levels that prevent and control chronic disease. In anticipation of a human intervention study to address safety and efficacy of increasing bean consumption, a dose response study with dietary beans was conducted to establish whether increased bean consumption in rats exhibits changes indicative of hepatic stress or toxicity.


Metabolomic and Functional Genomic Analyses Reveal Varietal Differences in Bioactive Compounds of Cooked Rice
      Adam L Heuberger, Matthew R Lewis, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Mark A Brick, Jan E Leach, Elizabeth P Ryan

Emerging evidence supports that cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) contains metabolites with biomedical activities, yet little is known about the genetic diversity that is responsible for metabolite variation and differences in health traits. Metabolites from ten diverse varieties of cooked rice were detected using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A total of 3,097 compounds were detected, of which 25% differed among the ten varieties. Multivariate analyses of metabolite profiles showed that the chemical diversity among the varieties cluster according to their defined subspecies classifications: indica, japonica and aus. Metabolite specific genetic diversity in rice was investigated by analyzing a collection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes from biochemical pathways of nutritional importance.

Evaluation of diversity among common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from two centers of domestication using ‘omics’ technologies
      Meghan M Mensack, Vanessa K Fitzgerald, Elizabeth P Ryan, Matthew R Lewis, Henry J Thompson, Mark A Brick

Genetic diversity among wild accessions and cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has been characterized using plant morphology, seed protein allozymes, random polymorphic DNA, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, DNA sequence analysis, chloroplast DNA, and microsatellite markers. Yet, little is known about whether these traits, which distinguish among genetically distinct types of common bean, can be evaluated using omics technologies. Three ‘omics’ approaches: transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics are used to qualitatively evaluate the diversity of common bean from two Centers of Domestication.


Chemical Composition and Mammary Cancer Inhibitory Activity of Dry Bean
      Matthew D Thompson, Mark A Brick, John N McGinley, Henry J Thompson

The global economic burden caused by chronic disease such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer is enormous. Little information exists about the role that specific crops in the diet play to reduce these disease. To address this question, the phenolic and flavonoid contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and anticancer activity of six market classes of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were evaluated.

Germplasm evaluation for resistance to bacterial wilt in common bean
      H. F. Schwartz, M. A. Brick, K. Otto, J. B. Ogg

A subset (100 each representing a range of seed colors and origins) of the Phaseolus vulgaris Core Collection – Mexican subgroup accessions and the combined Latin American Subgroup accessions were screened for reaction to a yellow (B528), orange (B557) and purple (B597) isolate of Bacterial Wilt previously recovered from infected common beans in Colorado or Nebraska and maintained in the laboratory.


Mechanisms Associated with Dose-Dependent Inhibition of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis by Dry Bean
     Matthew D Thompson, Henry J Thompson, Mark A Brick, John N McGinley, Weiqin Jiang, Zongjian Zhu, Pamela Wolfe

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) containing diet exerts an inhibitory effect of mammary carcinogenesis in a well characterized rodent model for breast cancer. Twenty-one-d-old female Sprague Dawley rats were given an intraperitoneal injections of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea and 7 d after carcinogen injection were randomized to 1 of 5 groups fed a modification of the AIN-93G diet formulation containing 0, 7.5, 15, 10 or 60% (wt:wt) small red dry bean incorporated as cooked, freeze-dried and milled powder.


Seventy-five Years of Breeding Dry Bean of the Western USA
      Shree P. Singh, Henry Teran, Margarita Lema, David M Webster, Carl A Strausbaugh, Philip N Miklas, Howard F. Schwartz, Mark A Brick

A periodic comparison of cultivars is essential to assess selection gains, determine deficiencies, define objectives and set breeding priorities. Our objective was to assess the Progress, or lack thereof, achieved in improving yield, plant type, maturity and resistance to major bacterial, fungal and viral diseases of dry bean of the western USA from 1918 to 1998.

Quantitative Trait Loci Linked to White Mold Resistance in Common Bean
      Judd J Maxwell, Mark A Brick, Patrick F Byrne, Howard F Schwartz, Xueyan Shan, James B Ogg, Robert A Hensen

White Mold disease (WM) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, reduces crop yield and quality throughout the United States. The development of cultivars with resistance to WM would be facilitated by the identification and use of molecular markers linked to resistance genes. The objectives of this research were to characterize WM reaction in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible germplasm, to validate the effect of a previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for WM resistance, and to locate additional QTL association with WM resistance.


Reaction to Three Races of Fusarium Wilt in the Phaseolus vulgaris Core Collection
      Mark A Brick, Patrick F Byrne, Howard F Schwartz, J Barry Ogg, Kristin Otto, Amy L Fall, Jeremy Gilbert

Seven races of Fusarium oxysprorum f. sp. phaseoli Kendrick and Snyder (Fop) cause Fusarium Wilt (FW) disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) FW occurs worldwide and has recently become a serious disease in the central and western USA. The objectives of this research were to identify new sources of resistance to Fop, characterize the Central/South American (CA/SA) Phaseolus Core Collection for the reaction to races 1,4 and 5 Fop and determine is a previously reported sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) molecular marker would be useful to identify resistance among accessions that make up the CA/SA Core Collection.


Traits associated with dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) productivity under diverse soil moisture environments
     Amare Abebe Shenkut, Mark A Brick

Two experiments were conducted in the Rift Valley, Ethiopia to determine associations between eight plant traits and seed yield, and to obtain estimates of narrow sense heritability for the traits.

Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum Isolates from Common Bean and Sugar Beet Using Pathogenicity Assays and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers
      R A Cramer, P F Byrne, M A Brick, L Panella, E Wickliffe, H F Schwartz

Fusarium Wilt is an economically important fungal disease of common bean and sugar beet in the Central High Plains (CHP) region of the United States, with yield losses approaching 30% under appropriate environmental conditions. The objective of this study was the characterize genetic diversity and pathogenicity of isolates of Fusarium oxysporum obtained from common beans and sugar beet plants in the CHP that exhibited Fusarium wilt symptoms.


Inheritance of Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Two Common Bean Races
      Hugh Cross, Mark A Brick, Howard F Schwartz, Lee W Panella, Patrick F Byrne

Fusarium wilt in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by Fusarium oxyporum Schlechtend. Fr. forma specialis phaseoli Kendrick and Snyder (Fop) occurs worldwide and can result in severe yield loss. Because cultural methods to control disease loss are not completely effective, cultivars with genetic resistance are need. The objectives of this study were to determine whether genetic control of the resistance to Fop race 4 differs between germplasm races of Durango and Mesoamerica of common bean and to estimate heritability of resistance found in Mesoamerica.


Relationships between productivity and carbon isotope discrimination among dry bean lines and F2 progeny
     M H Zacharisen, M A Brick, A G Fisher, J B Ogg, J R Ehleringer

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and tepary bean (P. acutifolius Gray) are grown for their edible seed and production is limited by insufficient soil moisture in many parts of the world. Carbon isotope discrimination () 〖against 〗^13 CO_2 during photosynthesis has been suggested as a useful selection criterion to improve crop productivity in water-limited environments, however, there is need to first understand relationships between productivity and  in common bean. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate relationships between productivity (as measured by seed yield and biomass) among diverse dry bean lines and F2 progeny, 2) evaluate associations for , seed yield and biomass among lines grown in different field environments and 3) estimate narrow sense heritability for , seed yield and yield components.


Comparison of selection indices to identify productive dry bean lines under diverse environmental conditions
     A Abebe, M A Brick, R A Kirkby

This research was designed to quantify the effect of seasonal rainfall on production of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Rift Valley of East Africa, where insufficient soil moisture often limits productivity, and compare methods to identify productive lines.


Characterization and Density of Trichomes on Three Common Bean Cultivars
      Ron M Dahlin, Mark A Brick, J Barry Ogg

Trichomes have been implicated as a mechanism which can confer resistance to both plant pests and drought. A study was conducted to provide information regarding genetic variability for trichome distribution and density among three diverse dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars, and to characterize the types of trichomes present among the cultivars.